Kinetic study of hydrogen lateral diffusion at high temperature in a directly-bonded InP-SiO2/Si substrate
Hybrid integration of III–V materials onto silicon by direct bonding technique is a mature and promising approaches to develop advanced photonic integrated devices into the silicon photonics platform. In this approach, the III–V material stack is grown on an InP wafer in a unique epitaxial step prior to the direct bonding process onto the silicon-on-insulator wafer. Currently, no additional epitaxial regrowth steps are implemented after bonding. This can be seen as a huge limitation as compared to the III–V on III–V wafer mature technology where multi-regrowth steps are most often implemented. In this work, we have studied the material behavior of an InP membrane on silicon (InPoSi) under epitaxial regrowth conditions by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). MOVPE requires high-temperature elevation, typically above 600 °C. We show for the first time the appearance of voids at 400 °C in an InP seed (100 nm) directly-bonded onto a thermally oxidized Si substrate despite the use of a thick SiO2 oxide (200 nm) at the bonding interface. This phenomenon is explained by a weakening of the bonding interface while high-pressurized hydrogen is present. A kinetic study of the hydrogen lateral diffusion is carried out, enabling the assessment of its lateral diffusion length. To overcome the void formation, highly efficient outgassing trenches after bonding are demonstrated. Finally, high-quality AlGaInAs-based multi-quantum well (MQW) heterostructure surrounded by two InP layers was grown by MOVPE on InPoSi template patterned with outgassing trenches. This process is not only compatible with MOVPE regrowth conditions (650 °C under PH3) but also with conventional fabrication processes used for photonic devices.